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澳大利亚著名建筑师谈遮阳在建筑外立面应用

2011-08-22

Use shaded skylights to compensate for any resultant loss of natural daylight.
运用带有遮阳的天窗以弥补自然光的损失。
Choose and position landscape to provide adequate shade without blocking access to cooling breezes.
选择并确定地点来提供合适的遮阳,并且不会阻挡凉爽微风的进入。
Use planting instead of paving, to reduce ground temperature and the amount of reflected heat.
用绿化代替石头路面,以降低地面的温度及其反射的热量。
A 'fly roof' can be used to shade the entire building. It protects the core building from radiant heat and allows cooling breezes to flow beneath it.
“漂浮屋顶”可以在整栋建筑上运用,达到遮阳效果。它可以保护建筑的核心部分免受热辐射,并使凉爽的微风从底下吹过。

东西面
Adjustable shading is particularly useful for eastern and western elevations, as the low angle of the sun makes it difficult to get adequate protection from fixed shading. Adjustable shading gives greater control while enabling daylight levels and views to be manipulated. Appropriate adjustable systems include sliding screens, louvre screens, shutters, retractable awnings and adjustable external blinds.
对于东西立面可调节式遮阳是非常重要的,因为太阳的入射高度角低,使固定的遮阳设备很难达到一个准确的支出角度。可调节式遮阳给与你更大的可控性,可以选择和调整太阳光的强弱和视野。适合的可调节系统包括:水平滑动屏风式,天窗式遮阳棚,曲臂遮阳棚和可调节式外遮阳百叶。

Shading requirements vary according to climate and house orientation. A general rule of thumb is:
遮阳的需求随气候和房屋朝向而变化。基本的规则如下:
ORIENTATION朝向   SUGGESTED SHADING TYPE建议的遮阳种类
NORTH北向  fixed or adjustable shading placed horizontally above window固定或可调节的遮阳,水平置于窗上
EAST & WEST东向和西向  adjustable vertical screens outside window窗外可调节式的垂直帘片
NE & NW东北向和西北向  adjustable shading可调节式遮阳
SE & SW东南向和西南向  Planting植物

Use plants to shade the building, particularly windows, to reduce unwanted glare and heat gain. Evergreen plants are recommended for hot humid and some hot dry climates. For all other climates use deciduous vines or trees to the north, and deciduous or evergreen trees to the east and west.
运用植物对建筑物进行遮阳,尤其在窗户部分,以减少不需要的强光和得热。我们建议在高温潮湿和一些高温干燥的气候环境种植常青植物。在其他的气候条件下把每年落叶的蔓藤植物或树木用在房子北面,落叶性的植物或常青树木用在东面和西面。

North facing openings (and south facing ones above the tropic of Capricorn) receive higher angle sun and therefore require narrower overhead shading devices than east or west facing openings. Fixed horizontal shading is often adequate above north facing glazing. Examples include eaves, awnings, and pergolas with louvres set to the correct angle.
北向敞开的地方(和赤道回归线以上的南向)接收来自高角度的太阳光,所以它比东向和西向敞开的地方相比需要较窄小的上部遮阳设备。固定的水平遮阳用在面向北边的玻璃窗,比如说屋檐,遮阳棚和植被凉棚,当它们调整到正确的角度后是非常合适的。
East and west facing openings require a different approach, as low morning and afternoon sun from these directions is more difficult to shade. Keep the area of glazing on east and west elevations to a minimum where possible, or use appropriate shading devices. Adjustable shading is the optimum solution for these elevations.
东向和西向的敞开的地方需要不同的解决方法,上午和下午阳光来自于不同的方向,这是非常难以遮挡的。尽量使东向和西向窗户面积最小,或者运用相适宜的遮阳设备。对于这两个朝向的里面来说,可调节式遮阳是最理想的解决方法

Protect skylights and roof glazing with external blinds or louvres. This is crucial as roof glazing receives almost twice as much heat as an unprotected west facing window.
运用外遮阳或百叶窗遮盖天窗和屋顶玻璃,这是非常重要的,因为屋顶玻璃窗比没有经过遮盖的西向窗户接收多过两倍的热量。

GROWING NATIVE AND INDIGENOUS PLANTS
本土植物的生长
What is the difference? In general terms, native plants are all plants from Australia. Indigenous plants are those specifically native to particular places in Australia.
有什么不一样呢?通常长说本国的植物都是来自澳大利亚的。本地的植物是澳大利亚境内的某些特殊的地方。
Sustainable landscape is an approach to designing and constructing the artificial landscapes that surround our buildings. These landscapes should maintain themselves and survive by being part of the natural cycles of the local environment.
对于设计和建造一个人工地形使其环绕于我们和建筑群周围,可持续发展的地形是一个很好的方法。这些景观应该可以使它们自己保存并存活下来,并成为本地环境自然生态圈的一部分。
In many cases this means finding out what the original local environment was like. This is often difficult, as in our cities and even in rural areas the landscape was significantly changed after European settlement.
在很多情况下,这代表这要找出本地环境最原始的状况。这是非常困难的,在我们城市甚至乡村地带,在欧洲人住扎之后景观发生巨大的变化。
Sustainable landscape means putting back much of what was in place before development. It may also mean introducing things that were not there before.
可持续发展地形,代表着尽量恢复这个地方在开发以前的事物。它同样可以代表引进这个地方以前没有的东西。

Heat loss and gain in a well insulated home occurs mostly through the windows. In summer, each square metre of glass in direct sun can allow as much heat in as would be produced by a single bar radiator. In winter, losses from a window can be ten or more times the losses through the same area of insulated wall.
在保温措施很充分的家庭里面,热量的得失大部分是通过窗户发生的。夏天,每平方米的玻璃上的通过的直接太阳辐射等同于单个暖气片产生的热量。冬天,从窗户散失的热量是同面积的保温墙体上散失热量的十倍或更多倍。
With good design windows can trap warmth in winter and repel summer heat. They admit cooling breezes and exclude cold winter winds.
设计很好的窗户可以在冬季引入热量,在夏季抵挡热量。还能够在夏季得到凉风,而不会受到冬季寒风侵袭。

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